The United Nations were founded on October 24th, 1945 by 51 Countries committed to preserving collective peace and security thanks to international cooperation, and they are strongly determined to thwart any kind of conflict. Today the UN is currently made up of 193 Member States.
According to its charter, the UN Security Council is committed to maintaining international peace and security, and it can be convened at any time, whenever the peace is threatened. The UN Security Council is made up of 15 members: 5 of them are permanent - China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States of America; the remaining 10 are appointed for a two-year period mandate by the Assembly. According to the UN charter, all of the Member States are obliged to respect every Council’s decision; said decisions require a majority of at least nine votes to be approved. No decision can be made if a Permanent Member votes against it. Besides Permanent Members, the Council provides for the participation of 10 non-permanent Members that are elected on behalf of the UN State Members. The 10 non-permanent Members are elected with a two-year term of office. UN Security Council’s presidency is held for a month by each Member, in alphabetical order according to the English names of the Countries.
After 9 years, Italy took over the Presidency of The Council on November, 2017.
Italy became a UN member on December 14th, 1955. Over the years, Italy concurred with determination to the elaboration of the General Assembly and Security Council’s Resolutions, that gave life to major innovations in terms of international regulations. Campaigns in favour of the moratorium of the death penalty; the promotion of gender equality and women and children’s rights; battles against every kind of religious discrimination and in favour of freedom of thought - these are some of the issued that involved our country. Italy has also shared its responsibility arising from collective security, already fulfilling a consecutive six-time role of non-permanent member of UN Security Council, and participating in peace operations; on November 1st began Italy’s presidency of the UN Security Council.
The Italian Presidency agenda is particularly tight. Amongst the most important appointments, Libya’s briefing (November 16th) and the security challenges briefing in the Mediterranean (November 17th) will be chaired by Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of International Cooperation Angelino Alfano and will be attended by General Secretary Guterres and ONU Special Representative for Libya, Salamè.
Italy founded its candidacy on the given contribute, and is able to continue to offering to the international community: its mass media communication; conflict prevention activities and promotion of dialogue as a main instrument to their resolution; commitment in UN’s peace operations; knowledge of the Mediterranean Sea and its dynamics, given the international importance; human rights, fundamental freedoms and Rule of Law’s promotion.
On 30 November, there will be a briefing on the "Destruction and trafficking of cultural heritage by terrorist groups and in situations of armed conflict", one of the main themes of the Italian mandate. There will also be numerous other events dealt with in November in accordance with the frequency established by the Council. They mainly involve updates on a number of situations in the following countries: The Central African Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Sudan/Darfur, Libya, Burundi, Syria (regarding three different fronts: chemical weapons, humanitarian and political matters), the Middle East, as well as discussions on sanctions against North Korea.
Italy will be a non-permanent member throughout 2017, while in 2018 it will be replaced by the Netherlands: the two countries made agreements on dividing the 2017-2018 term, given the equal footing reached in June 2016 elections.
Ruino Martina Pia
“Terrorists are humans like us”,according to Mr Murat Salim Esenli, Ambassador of Turkey speaking at the Security Council earlier today. In a discussion about terrorism prevention, which Mr Joep Wijnands, Ambassador of the Netherlands also attended, the ambassadors shed light on what the international community can do to prevent the birth of new terrorist groups and how states can fight this threat.
To fight terrorism, Mr Wijnands stressed that we need to remember people are not born terrorists, it is a process. Therefore, we should look at why people get involved. He suggested that radicalisation happens when vulnerable people misunderstand what they are getting involved in.
Therefore, to combat this,“you need to know who they are, you have to find them, and you have to communicate with them.We want people to feel included in our society.”
The Dutch ambassador stressed that through education and communication we can show them a different reality, where they could have a role in society.
Whilst both ambassadors agreed that local, community integration were essential preventative measures, the Turkish Ambassador emphasised that such cooperation can only work when the international community is clear about who the terrorists are. This is particularly relevant for Turkey, as they have often been accused by other states of inaccurately labelling any group that uses violence to try and achieve what they want as terrorists. This particular issue, he stressed, is really hampering international cooperation.
And in comparison to the Dutch Ambassador, it was clear that the Turkish Ambassador was speaking from the perspective of a country whose politics is dominated by terrorism. The Netherlands, on the other hand, has not experienced a terrorist attack of the nature Turkey faces weekly. Nor does it currently have any active threats towards it other than the general threats to the West and Europe.
But despite their respective countries’ differences of experience, they were both in agreement that no one country will win the fight against terrorism. It has to be an international effort.
Edited by Stuart Smith and Carlotta Pescatore